John Stuart Mill was a nineteenth century Liberal philosopher
When and Where was he Born?
20th May 1806, Rodney Street, Pentonville, London, England.
John Stuart Mill was the son of the philosopher, social historian, economist and official in the East India Company, James Mill and Harriet Burrowl.
Educated by his father, James and his friends such as Francis Place and especially the philosopher Jeremy Bentham. He was taught Latin and Greek at an Early age and become an expert economist and logician by the age of 16. James’s main aim was to form a genius who would carry on the cause of utilitarianism and its implementation after he and Bentham had died. He was deliberately keep away from association with other children and did not go to Oxford or Cambridge Universities later on as he refused to become an Anglican in religion.
Chronology/Biography of John Stuart Mill:
1818: Publication of his father James’s “History of India”.
1820: Mill went to stay aged fourteen in France for a year with Sir Samuel Bentham who was the brother of Jeremy Bentham. He studied widely in Paris.
1820’s: John Stuart Mill started a pen-friendship with Auguste Comte, the founder of positivism and sociology.
1826: He suffered a nervous breakdown due to his incessant studying and decided that there was more to life than serving the public good and increasing his knowledge. Despite having grown up as a utilitarian turned his attention to artists and poets such as Goethe, Coleridge and Wordsworth for inspiration.
1830: Mill meets Harriet Taylor for the first time.
1830s: Became the Editor of “The London and Westminster Review”, a radical quarterly journal. He was to continue to write about the need to use the scientific approach to understand social, political and economic change. Followed in the footsteps of his father as an administrator for the East India Company.
1843: Publication of “The System of Logic” which attempted to describe logic and science especially as applied to social conditions. He consistently attacked the “intuitionist” philosophy of William Whewell and Sir William Hamilton.
1848: Publication of “Principles of Political Economy” a work which cemented John Stuart Mill’s fame with the British public and for which he became best known. He tried to show that economics was not a “dismal science” but necessary to understand society. He stated that nations should sacrifice economic growth for the sake of the environment and that populations should be limited so that there would not be a large amount of poor people in starvation.
1857: After the Indian Mutiny the British Government took over the work of the East India Company in India and Mill was effectively retired from his post.
1859: The publication of “On Liberty” was surrounded by controversy and disapproval. Mill and Harriet felt that adventurous and courageous individuals were becoming too rare in the present ordered and stuffy society.
1863: Publication of “Utilitarianism” which states that mankind should work towards the greatest good and the greatest happiness of all people.
1865: Mills’s “Examination of Sir William Hamilton’s Philosophy” attacked the protestors and also provoked controversy for at least twenty years afterwards.
1865: Was elected Liberal Member of Parliament for Westminster. Became Lord Rector of the University of St Andrews.
1866: John Stuart Mill became the first person in the British Parliament to call for women to be given the vote.
1868: Ended his time as an M.P. and Lord Rector of St Andrews.
1869: “On The Subjection of Women” was published and was thought to be excessively radical in Mill’s day but is now seen as liberal feminism. It states that freedom is as good for women as it is for men and that the only way to understand the different natures of men and women was by fair experiment with women having access to everything that men had.
(1874): The “Three Essays on Religion” were published deliberately after his death due to their controversial ideas that it is impossible amongst other things that the universe is governed by an omnipotent and loving God.
1843: “A System of Logic.”
1848: “Principles of Political Economy.”
1859: “Dissertations and Discussions.”
1861: “Considerations on Representative Government.”
1865: “Examination of Sir William Hamilton’s Philosophy”
1869: “On the Subjection of Women.”
(1874): “Three Essays on Religion”
1851 to Harriet Taylor whom he had known for 21 years previously. (Died 1858 after contracting severe lung congestion).
When and Where Did he Die?
8th May 1873, Aix-En-Provence, near Avignon, France next to his wife Harriet.
Age at Death:
Site of Grave:
Cemetery at St Veran, near Avignon, Provence, France.
Places of Interest: